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Mgt. Problems & Polices

Time allowed: 3 hours Date: 11/2/2010

Answer four questions only

Question (1):-

Differentiate between rational-analytical and political-behavioral decision maker.

Question (2):-

a. Why do firms have objectives, and why are they important to strategic management

b. Why do enterprises pursue a stability strategy?

Question (3):-

Analysis and diagnosis of the different sectors of the industry environment is of great imponance to strategists. Discuss the supplier and the competitor sectors.

Question (4):-

Many firms now operate in what has been termed "the global village". What are the implications of this term on those firms and the way they should accomplish their strategic planning.

Question (5):-

To fill the gaps matching the two profiles (ETOP & SAP) and the firm's objectives, strategists can consider four generic strategic alternatives. Discuss expansion and retrenchment strategies.

 

 

Mgt. Problems & Policies

Time allowed: 3 hours Date: 5/12/2010

Answer four questions only  

(All Question carry Equal Marks)

1. Choices of strategists concerning mission and objectives formulation are affected by a number of factors. Discuss

2. Answer the following question:

(A) Managers must systematically analyze and diagnose the environment. Why?

(B) Firms tend toward stablity, yet missions and objectives change over time. Discuss.

3. "Effective strategists are concerned about supplier and competitor changes in the environment". Comment.

4. In their attempt to fill the gaps matching the environmental threat and opportunity profile with the strategic advantage profile. Strategists should generate a number of strategic alternatives. Elaborate on stability and retrenchment alternatives.

5. Strategic choice process is influenced by certain managerial selection factors. Discuss.

6. "A good strategy ""ithout effective implementation is not likely to succeed". Discuss

 

 

Mid- Term Examination Mgt. Problems & Policies.

Time allowed: 2 hours 2009

Answer two questions only (All questions carry equal marks)

Questions (1)

Differentiate between rational-analytical and intuitive-emotional decision maker.

Questions (2)

a. Describe the role of corporate planners and strategic management consultants as strategists.

b. Why do enterprises have objectives?

Questions (3)

Formulation of mission and objectives is affected by a number of factors. Discuss.

 

 

Mgt. problems & Policies.

Time allowed: 3 hours Date: 13/12/2008

Answer Four Questions Only (The questions carry equal weight)

1. It is asserted that the" board of directors" had gone through specific developmental stages. What are the implications of these developments?

2. What are the main variables which must be scanned when the internal environment is analyzed?

3. What are the main steps / activities involved in strategy formulation?

4. Describe SNYDER'S strategic choice model.

5. What are the main subjective factors which influence the actual selection decision?

6. How is a strategy to be implemented?

 

Final Examination 2007/2008

Mgt. Problems & Policies

Time allowed: 3 hours Date: 5/1/2008

(Answer Four Questions Only) (All questions carry equal marks)

1. Explain & demonstrate the influence of sources of revenue on strategic decision-making.

2. Explain the relationship between strategic audit & the strategic management process.

3. How does the future look for the boards of directors in terms of their responsibilities and organizations?

4. “If a corporation is to be managed strategically then an understanding of corporation's culture becomes imperative", why is this so?

5. How is the decision made to determine the best strategy from the potential strategic alternatives?

6. What are the main guidelines which management should follow to ensure proper control?

 

 

Management Problems & Policies

Date: 20/10/2007 Time: 2 hours

Answer All the Questions

1. Describe the theories of decision making and explain how decisions should ideally be made.

2. Robert Katz developed an approach which focused on the skill successful managers exhibit in performing their jobs. Describe this approach and explain its implications.

3. “There is a developing consensus concerning the major responsibilities of a board of directors" What are the major responsibilities and what are their implications strategic management?

 

 

Final Examination 2006

Management Problems and Policies Time: 3 hours

Answer Four Questions Only

1. Why do managers need to analyze and diagnose the environment? And what are the techniques used for environmental analysis?

2. Diagnosis of the environment is affected by the characteristics of the strategist and by the nature of the executive's job. Discuss.

3. Besides looking at primary demand and supply factors, strategists examine the state of competition the firm must face. Discuss.

4. It is said that in volatile industries, a stability strategy can mean short-run success, long-run death. Explain, comparing between stability and expansion strategies.

5. Define strategic choice and discuss one of the techniques developed to help managers make strategic choices.

6. A good strategy without effective implementation has a lower probability of success. Discuss

Managerial Economics lecture notes by MBA Batch 2007 (Nadir)

Topics:

  • Scope Nature & Objective of Managerial Economics
  • Optimization
  • Demand Analysis
  • Production Analysis
  • Optimal Combination of Multiple Input

Macroeconomics lecture notes written by MBA Batch 2011 (great effort)

Note: File attached at the end (Word Document)

Course topics:

  • Definition and scope of macroeconomics
  • National income
  • Level of income in a two sector economy
  • Level of income and the government.
  • International sector and the level of income.
  • Multipliers” two-three sector model and four sector economy”.
  • Consumption theories.
  • Marginal efficiency of capital.
  • Theories of investment.
  • Equilibrium in the commodity market.
  • Money and the level of income.
  • Equilibrium in the money market.
  • Simultaneous equilibrium” commodity & money market”.
  • Effectiveness monetary and fiscal policies.
  • Issues of macroeconomic nature” inflation, unemployment”.

General Instructions:

Please form groups of 5-10 members each, and every student in this course should belong to one of the formed groups

  1. Membership in these groups should be maintained throughout this course
  2. Once formed, each group should mail a list of its members  ( those who already formed and emailed their group members list need not do that again)

 

Project # 1

Financial Statements Analysis

  1. Each group should choose one company (preferably Sudanese and listed company). If not able to find a Sudanese company with proper financial reporting, you may choose a company of other nationality.
  2. Use at least two consecutive years financial statements covering the activities of the company of your choice.
  3. Perform the following :
    • Sources and uses of cash analysis
    • Common size financial statement analysis
    • Ratio analysis encompassing:
      • Liquidity ratios
      • Activity (turnover) ratios
      • Solvency ratios
      • Profitability ratios
  4. Each group should write a logical report summarizing its findings indicating the weaknesses and strengths emerge from the analysis.
  5. The report should be well typed and free as much as possible of typing and grammatical mistakes
  6. On the cover please write the names of the members of the group who participated in the analysis and writing up of the report.
  7. The deadline for submission of the report is the day of the Mid-Term examination

 

Dr Abuzar M. A. Eljelly
Professor of Accounting and Finance
Advisor, Capital Market Authority
Saudi Arabia

Managerial Accounting

Sheet 2, Example 2, Page 6

Example 2, (Overheads – Re-apportionment)

Note: Article attached for download at the end (pdf)

The Blue Bird Textile Compane Ltd is composed of 3 production departments: Spinning, Weaving and Finishing, and 2 service cost centers: Workshop and Stores.

Following is the overheads budget for the year ending 31st December 2012

Overheads Budget

1- Rent and   Rates (SDG)

 

210,000

2- Labour health expenses

 

315,000

3- Indirect Labour

 

 

Spinning

275,000

 

Weaving

175,000

 

Finishing

150,000

 

Workshop

25,000

 

Stores

15,000

640,000

4- Machinery Depreciation

 

1,400,000

5- Electricity for lighting

 

168,000

6- Electricity for power

 

243,000

7- Indirect Material

 

 

Spinning

329,000

 

Weaving

270,000

 

Finishing

200,000

 

Workshop

75,000

 

Stores

20,000

894,000

8- Labour uniform

 

525,000

9- Building insurance

 

70,000

10- Machinery insurance

 

280,000

11- Departmental expenses

 

 

Spinning

25,000

 

Weaving

15,000

 

Finishing

23,000

 

Workshop

31,000

 

Stores

11,000

105,000

Total budget overheads

 

4,850,000

 

Additional information

Department

Area m2

Horse Power

Machinery Value

No. of Employees

Spinning

4,500

65

6,250

850

Weaving

4,000

40

4,250

650

Finishing

3,500

25

3,250

550

Workshop

500

5

250

35

Stores

1,500

-

-

15

 

 

Required:

  1. Directly allocate and apportion overheads to all of the productive and service cost centers
  2. Re-apportion the service cost center overheads using the direct method and assuming that the workshop is supplying its services to other centers in the following ratios: Spinning 60%, Weaving 25%, Finishing 15% and the Stores are supplying their services as Spinning 30%, Weaving 15%, Finishing 60%.

 

Solution

General steps:

  1. Construct an Overhead Analysis Sheet (Table)
  2. List all the departments (production and service) in columns with a total column, overhead and basis of apportionment at the beginning
  3. For each overhead:
    • List the overheads in the row
    • Select a suitable apportioning basis (depends on type of overhead) and list it
    • Enter the total overhead figure
    • To get the apportioned value for each department, divide the total overhead value by the sum of the apportioning method value and multiply by the department apportioning value.
  4. Compute the total of the department overheads
  5. Re-apportion the service departments according to the given ratios
    • List the service department
    • List the given re-apportioning ratio
    • Deduct the service department value from itself in the same service department column (value x -1)
    • To get the re-apportioned value for each production department divide the service department value by the total ratio value and multiply by the production department ratio
    • Do not re-apportion to the other service departments
  6. Compute the final total overheads, the service department should have Zero overheads

Note:

The following overheads are directly allocated (no apportionment needed):

  1. Indirect Labour
  2. Indirect Material
  3. Departmental Expenses

Selecting the suitable apportioning basis depends on the overhead type:

  • Employee related overheads should be apportioned according to the number of employees, like “2- Labour health expenses” and “8- Labour uniform
  • Machine related overheads should be apportioned according to machine value, like “4- Machinery Depreciation” and “10- Machinery insurance
  • 6- Electricity for power” is apportioned according to Horse Power as electricity power consumption is directly dependant on it
  • General building related overheads should be apportioned according to Area m2 like “1- Rent and Rates”, “5- Electricity for lighting” and “9- Building insurance

 

Overhead Analysis Sheet

 

 

 

Production

Service

Overhead

Basis   of apport.

Apport. total

Spinning

Weaving

Finishing

Workshop

Stores

1-   Rent

Area

210,000

67,500

60,000

52,500

7,500

22,500

2-   Labour health

Employee

315,000

127,500

97,500

82,500

5,250

2,250

3-   Ind. Labour

Direct

640,000

275,000

175,000

150,000

25,000

15,000

4-   Mach. Deprec.

Mach   value

1400,000

625,000

425,000

325,000

25,000

0

5-   Elec. Lighting

Area

168,000

54,000

48,000

42,000

6,000

18,000

6-   Elec. Power

Horse   Power

243,000

117,000

72,000

45,000

9,000

0

7-   Ind. Material

Direct

894,000

329,000

270,000

200,000

75,000

20,000

8-   Labour uniform

Employee

525,000

212,500

162,500

137,500

8,750

3,750

9-   Build. Insurance

Area

70,000

22,500

20,000

17,500

2,500

7,500

10-   Mach. Insurance

Mach   Value

280,000

125,000

85,000

65,000

5,000

0

11-   Dep. Expenses

Direct

105,000

25,000

15,000

23,000

3,100

11,000

Total

 

4,850,000

1,980,000

1,430,000

1,140,000

200,000

100,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WS   re-apport.

60:25:15

 

120,000

50,000

30,000

(200,000)

0

Stores   re-apport.

30:10:60

 

30,000

10,000

60,000

0

(100,000)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

4,850,000

2,130,000

1490,000

1230,000

0

0

 

Detailed steps

To get the apportioned value for each department, divide the total overhead value by the sum of the apportioning method value and multiply by the department apportioning value.

1-    Rent: Apportioned by Area

  • Total area = 4,500 + 4,000 + 3,500 + 500 + 1,500 = 14,000
  • Total overhead = 210,000
  • Spinning: (210,000/14,000) x 4,500 = 67,500
  • Weaving: (210,000/14,000) x 4,000 = 60,000
  • Finishing: (210,000/14,000) x 3,500 = 52,500
  • Workshop: (210,000/14,000) x 500 = 7,500
  • Stores: (210,000/14,000) x 1,500 = 22,500

2-    Labour Health: Apportioned by No. of Employees

  • Total No. of Employees = 850 + 650 + 550 + 35 + 15 = 2,100
  • Total overhead = 315,000
  • Spinning: (315,000/2,100) x 850 = 127,500
  • Weaving: (315,000/2,100) x 650 = 97,500
  • Finishing: (315,000/2,100) x 550 = 82,500
  • Workshop: (315,000/2,100) x 35 = 5,250
  • Stores: (315,000/2,100) x 15 = 2,250

3-    Indirect Labour: Direct allocation

  • Total overhead = 640,000
  • Spinning: 275,000
  • Weaving: 175,000
  • Finishing: 150,000
  • Workshop: 25,000
  • Stores: 15,000

4-    Machinery Depreciation: Apportioned by Machinery Value

  • Total Machinery Value = 6,250 + 4,250 + 3,250 + 250 = 14,000
  • Total overhead = 1,400,000
  • Spinning: (1,400,000/14,000) x 6,250 = 625,000
  • Weaving: (1,400,000/14,000) x 4,250 = 42,5000
  • Finishing: (1,400,000/14,000) x 3,250 = 325,000
  • Workshop: (1,400,000/14,000) x 250 = 25,000
  • Stores: (1,400,000/14,000) x 0 = 0

5-    Electricity for lighting: Apportioned by Area

  • Total area = 4,500 + 4,000 + 3,500 + 500 + 1,500 = 14,000
  • Total overhead = 168,000
  • Spinning: (168,000/14,000) x 4,500 = 54,000
  • Weaving: (168,000/14,000) x 4,000 = 48,000
  • Finishing: (168,000/14,000) x 3,500 = 42,000
  • Workshop: (168,000/14,000) x 500 = 6,000
  • Stores: (168,000/14,000) x 1,500 = 18,000

6-    Electricity for power: Apportioned by Horse Power

  • Total Horse Power = 65 + 40 + 25 + 5 = 135
  • Total overhead = 243,000
  • Spinning: (243,000/135) x 65 = 117,000
  • Weaving: (243,000/135) x 40 = 72,000
  • Finishing: (243,000/135) x 25 = 45,000
  • Workshop: (243,000/135) x 5 = 9,000
  • Stores: (243,000/135) x 0 = 0

7-    Indirect Material: Direct allocation

  • Total overhead = 894,000
  • Spinning: 329,000
  • Weaving: 270,000
  • Finishing: 200,000
  • Workshop: 75,000
  • Stores: 20,000

8-    Labour Uniform: Apportioned by No. of Employees

  • Total No. of Employees = 850 + 650 + 550 + 35 + 15 = 2,100
  • Total overhead = 525,000
  • Spinning: (525,000/2,100) x 850 = 212,500
  • Weaving: (525,000/2,100) x 650 = 162,500
  • Finishing: (525,000/2,100) x 550 = 137,500
  • Workshop: (525,000/2,100) x 35 = 8,750
  • Stores: (525,000/2,100) x 15 = 3,750

9-    Building insurance: Apportioned by Area

  • Total area = 4,500 + 4,000 + 3,500 + 500 + 1,500 = 14,000
  • Total overhead = 70,000
  • Spinning: (70,000/14,000) x 4,500 = 22,500
  • Weaving: (70,000/14,000) x 4,000 = 20,000
  • Finishing: (70,000/14,000) x 3,500 = 17,500
  • Workshop: (70,000/14,000) x 500 = 2,500
  • Stores: (70,000/14,000) x 1,500 = 7,500

10-  Machinery Insurance: Apportioned by Machinery Value

  • Total Machinery Value = 6,250 + 4,250 + 3,250 + 250 = 14,000
  • Total overhead = 280,000
  • Spinning: (280,000/14,000) x 6,250 = 125,000
  • Weaving: (280,000/14,000) x 4,250 = 85,0000
  • Finishing: (280,000/14,000) x 3,250 = 65,000
  • Workshop: (280,000/14,000) x 250 = 5,000
  • Stores: (280,000/14,000) x 0 = 0

11-  Departmental Expenses: Direct allocation

  • Total overhead = 105,000
  • Spinning: 25,000
  • Weaving: 15,000
  • Finishing: 23,000
  • Workshop: 31,000
  • Stores: 11,000

12-  WS Re-Apportioning: Spinning : Weaving : Finishing = 60:25:15

  • Total Overhead = 200,000
  • Spinning: (200,000/100) x 60 = 120,000
  • Weaving: (200,000/100) x 25 = 50,000
  • Finishing: (200,000/100) x 15 = 30,000

 

13-  Sotres Re-Apportioning: Spinning : Weaving : Finishing = 30:10:60

  • Total Overhead = 200,000
  • Spinning: (100,000/100) x 30 = 30,000
  • Weaving: (100,000/100) x 10 = 10,000
  • Finishing: (100,000/100) x 60 = 60,000

 

Lecture One Outlines:

  • What is Macroeconomics
  • Purpose of studying Macroeconomics
  • Objectives & Policies of Macroeconomics
  • Monetary National Income & Real National Income
  • Price Index and its different types.
    • How to compute the Simple Price Index.
    • How to compute the Weighted Price Index.
    • How to compute the Real National Income
  • Distinction between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) & GNP.
  • The Link between NI & Social Welfare.
  • Importance of National Income.

Outlines of the course:

  1. Introduction - Concepts & Definition.
  2. National Income - Definition & Measurement.
  3. Level of National Income in a two-sectors Model of an Economy.
  4. Government & Level of Income
    • Government Sector Multipliers.
  5. Internal Sector and the Level of Income.
  6. Multipliers in a fair Sector Model of an Economy.
  7. Theories of Consumption.
  8. Marginal Efficiency of Capital.
  9. Theories of Investment.
  10. Accelerator Theory.
  11. Equilibrium in Commodity Market - IS-schedule.
  12. Money & the Level of Income - Theories of Demand for Money.
  13. Equilibrium in Money Market.
  14. Macroeconomic Policy : Fiscal and Monetary Policies & their Effectiveness.
  15. Inflation.
  16. Unemployment.

 

Management Accounting lecture 1 summary outlines

Note: The lecture notes are attached in MS Word format at the end

Management Accounting Definition

Financial Accounting :  

  • Definition  
  • Criticizm  
  • External users  
  • Statements objectives

Cost Accounting:  

  • Definition  
  • As a noun  
  • Objectives

Cost Classifications:  

  • Classification of costs into direct and indirect  
  • Classification of costs according to cost behaviour  
  • Classification of costs according to function  
  • Classification of costs according to cost unit  

 Cost statement  

  • Classification of costs according to controllability  
  • Classification of costs according to normality
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